Book VII. Analysis Of Julius Caesar 's ' The Gallic War ' 1070 Words 5 Pages Critique Essay In this critique of Julius Caesar’s book, The Gallic War, I will be discussing the purpose and accuracy (or in this case, inaccuracy) over his adventures and military campaign against the Gallic tribes. Gallic walls, it is now explained, are made in overlapping units, filled with rubble on the inside and covered by large stones on the outside. They too have an able intelligence staff and have learned of Caesar's approach and have hidden the wagons and baggage in nearby dense woods. Especially during the winter when there was little to forage, having food could decide the outcome of a battle. Instead, he simply had Eporedorix and Viridomarus ride out with the troops and let themselves be seen by the Gauls, who immediately return to the Roman side at the sight of the two men. 7.01-05 Sight Reading With the Professor. There are a few more skirmishes during the next few days, but no major battles because Vercingetorix cannot be lured to level ground. Because of this, allied towns that weren't potential enemies at one's back might still be destroyed to make sure the enemy army starved or retreated. His decision seems traitorous, for after Roman defeat, an even brighter future is promised for the Aeduan king. Winners and Losers of Julius Caesar's Gallic War Battles, Roman Empire: Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, Meaning Behind the Phrase to Cross the Rubicon, Valens and the Battle of Adrianople (Hadrianopolis), 60-50 B.C. After these two defeats, the Gauls reconsider their plans. Camulogenus, the leader of the enemy force, commands the group. The wily leader and his dependents escape, however, before they can be dealt with. They try to undermine the ramp and set it afire, and attempt to kill the soldiers doing the building. Vercingetorix, son of the former Gallic chieftain, arouses his men to assemble and is soon joined by many other adventurers and soldiers. He must also get his army safely to Agedincum. They rush to save the structure, but are confronted by the enemy rushing from two gates at once; at the same time men on the wall begin to hurl pitch and burning wood onto the ramp. His men are enthusiastic and swear an oath that they will not return home until they pass twice through Caesar's column. But because the Boii have little grain and the Aedui are of little help in providing grain, Caesar's troops must endure several days without grain; on other days they have only cattle captured in distant villages, but in spite of this, morale remains high. Vercingetorix suggested a scorched-earth policy. The enemy hears of his approach, burns the town and all bridges approaching it, and moves to a position across the Seine from Labienus. This period of revolt follows the earlier Gallic battles at Bibracte, Vosges, and Sabis. Lucius Fabius, a centurion in the Eighth Legion, has sworn to be first to climb the wall and is assisted up by three of his men. The law is clear and there is no justification for Cotus' attempt to have the office. The various chiefs meet and their first task is to make sure Caesar is kept from joining his army, which seems easy enough with the legions in winter quarters and the knowledge that they will not leave without their commander-in-chief. The Bellovaci, who intend to fight the Romans themselves, do not make up their quota of 10,000 but because of their regard for Commius they do send 2,000. This series of annual war commentaries is referred to by various names but is commonly called De bello Gallico in Latin, or The Gallic Wars in English. That done, he sends Labienus with four legions against the Senones and the Parisii; the other six he takes to Gergovia in the country of the Arverni. When they reached Alesia, the Romans surrounded the hilltop city. Some rode off to the other Aeduan towns to convince them to resist and avenge themselves on the Romans, as well. All of Caesar's skills — being prepared, moving quickly, and taking advantage — are more important in this book than anywhere else; this widespread Gallic rebellion is his greatest challenge. On the east the Gauls set up their line. The Romans put torturous devices on the outside that could injure an army pressing against it. Then, when their cavalry has fled, the archers are surrounded and killed. At once he is called "King" by his supporters and soon manages alliance with other tribes, all of which agree that he is best suited to be their chief. Instead a solemn oath is taken. They are so confused, in fact, that after they find themselves in trouble, they are unable to recognize the friendly Aeduan forces that come to help them. By peaceful means or by attacking, he added troops from the Gallic tribes of the Senones (the tribe connected with the band of Gauls responsible for the sack of Rome in 390 B.C. He further asks the Aedui and the Segusiavi to supply 10,000 infantry and 800 cavalry. Caesar, generous to the Aedui and Arverni, distributed Gallic captives so that every soldier throughout the army received one as plunder. The hillside, at the end the enemy attacks, is open because Caesar would have had to enclose the entire hill to complete his entrenchments. One of those in on the discussion was Litavicus, who was put in charge of the infantry being sent to Caesar. Caesar then moves to the town of Cenabum, whose inhabitants have heard of the siege of Vellaunodunum and have prepared their garrison. This is, of course, seen from the town and the muleteers are mistaken for the real cavalry. Women climb atop the wall and with bared breasts plead for mercy, for they have heard that the women and children at Avaricum were killed. The Tenth Legion, which he had accompanied on the charge, stops as instructed, but the others do not hear the trumpet and they continue charging. Each morning, he meets with the various chiefs in council, then exercises the troops. The next day, the Gauls attacked from both sides. But Caesar, although he had not as yet discovered their measures, yet, both from what had occurred to his ships, and from the circumstance that they had neglected to give the promised hostages, suspected that the thing would come to pass which really did happen. The Arverni and allies divided into three groups to attack. By this time the Gauls realized their freedom was at stake and having the Romans around to arbitrate and help them against other invaders meant the loss of freedom and heavy demands in terms of soldiers and supplies. Caesar's bait is effective. He merely points out, before letting them ride away, all that he has done for them and their people. The Gauls on the city side of the Roman lines empty the Roman turrets by firing missiles, then fill in the trenches and tear down the breastworks by pulling them over with large hooks, but all is not theirs yet Caesar sends young Brutus with troops, and Gaius Fabius with even more, then goes himself with still more until the enemy is beaten back. These men, however, have been instructed by Caesar to say that the Roman army is weakened by hunger and that Caesar has decided to withdraw if he is not successful in three days. Many hostages are then taken and the legions are sent into winter quarters. This is the longest book in the Gallic Wars and it describes the great revolt of most of the Gallic tribes. Others worked on building the fortifications, which meant Caesar's troop strength was diminished. Convictolitavis is seemingly ungrateful for Caesar's decision. This chapter or section of the book had a very insightful look into how Caesar handled himself as an emperor, and the many important reforms that he made. While he is gone, he leaves young Brutus in charge with orders to let the cavalry operate as far and wide as possible and says that he will return in three days. Then Caesar offers prizes to those who mount the wall first and, that done, gives the signal, and the troops charge the wall. Arriving in Italy, Caesar learns that the senate has decreed that all young men of military age should be drafted, so he decides to enroll soldiers in Cisalpine Gaul. Caesar then sends one legion in the same direction, stops it part way, and hides it in the woods. It is a first hand account of the final titanic struggle between two nations, one fighting for … As the towns are destroyed, there is much mourning, but the pain of loss is compensated for by the hope of recovering their losses by overcoming the Romans. At the same time the Gallic cavalry attacks the Roman lines farther down the plain. They stay atop the wall and call for more Romans to join them. They hope desperately that the Romans will not be able to stay in the area if there is a great scarcity of food or perhaps even better, that the Romans will go far afield and be easy to pick off. Labienus then led his men to join Caesar. Commentaries on the Gallic War Gaius Julius CAESAR (100 - 44 BCE) , translated by Thomas Rice HOLMES (1855 - 1933) Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. The time is right for his plan: he orders the men at work to slacken their speed. Finally, ending the day's engagement, Vercingetorix, as the victor, called off the fight for the day when new Roman legions arrived. and any corresponding bookmarks? He tried to ally the Biturgies, but they resisted and sent ambassadors to the Aedui for help against Vercingetorix. This he did, and after his troops had surprised the Aeduans, they took the food and cattle they found in the fields and then marched off to the territory of the Senones. But his current task is made doubly difficult because he is pressed on one side by the brave Bellovaci and on the other by Camulogenus' army. Still, their number is vast — almost 300,000 troops are requisitioned. Any plots the Aedui might have had are aborted by the rapidity with which he joins his legions. Vercingetorix broke down all bridges over the river, but this proved only a temporary set-back for the Romans. The natives of Transalpine Gaul, meanwhile, hear of his decision and spread rumors that the general is detained in Rome and cannot join his army. Thus they want to ready their forces in secret and so do not exchange hostages, which would reveal that coalition was being accomplished. He orders each state to supply certain numbers of soldiers and requests that all archers be brought to him. Caesar spared them and marched back towards Gergovia. So, just after midnight, Caesar sends his cavalry there with instructions to be extra noisy in their movements. I.--Gaul being tranquil, Caesar, as he had determined, sets out for ... begin to organize their plans for war more openly and daringly. They also build up the scaffolding on their walls to keep it on a level with the Roman turrets. The Latin title, Commentaries on the Gallic War, is often retained in English translations of the book, and the title is also translated to About the Gallic War, Of the Gallic War, On the Gallic War, The Conquest of Gaul, and The Gallic War. The first book covers the year 58 BCE: it opens with the war against the Helvetians, continues with a victorious battleagainst a Germanic army, and culminates in the modest remark that Caesar had concluded two very important wars in a single campaign. He even added allies to his roster, including Teutomarus, the son of Ollovicon, the king of the Nitiobriges, who was a friend of Rome on the basis of a formal treaty (amicitia). Caesar was afraid that if he didn't arbitrate, one side would turn to Vercingetorix for support of its cause, so he stepped in. Caesar then finds sufficient supplies for his troops and decides first to march toward the Senones. The Biturgies were dependents of the Aedui and the Aedui were allies of Rome ("Brothers and Kinsmen of the Roman People" 1.33). Meanwhile, Vercingetorix had thousands of cavalry from the Aedui and Segusiani. Luckily, their camp is near one of the bridges that Vercingetorix has destroyed and when the legions have departed and Vercingetorix' troops have followed on the other side, Caesar orders the bridge rebuilt. Vercingetorix then set up camp 15 miles from Avaricum and whenever Caesar's men went foraging at a distance, some of Vercingetorix' men attacked them. He then urges the Aedui to forget all disputes and concentrate on the war. Fighting continues throughout the night. Moving quickly by night, the Roman general reaches the enemy's camp by morning, but he is unable to take it by surprise. At the signal, the Roman troops quickly cross the wall and take three camps. All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae inhabit, the Aquitani another, those who … They attack Cenabum, kill the Romans there and plunder the Roman property stored in the town. Caesar's defense is immediate. Caesar's troops found ample provisions, and by this time winter was almost over. Vercingetorix calls a council and says he will do whatever they think best: they may kill him to please the Romans or they may surrender and present him to the enemy alive. This inspired the people of Noviodunum to take up arms and shut the gates, backing down from their surrender. Then he goes forward to encourage his troops. In other books, the rebellions are generally restricted to a single area at a time, but here the revolt is general, including even the usually reliable Aedui. Clearing a roadway through six feet of snow in the Cevennes mountains is a massive feat when one considers that it had to be done by manual labor. Too, they are especially anxious to avenge those Romans who were killed at Cenahum. It is little wonder that Caesar is accorded heroic stature, especially after one considers the deeds recorded in this book. Caesar secures his baggage on a hill, then leaves two legions to guard it while he takes the rest of the army in pursuit. The troops see the two men and realize that Litaviccus has lied. From there, Caesar sent word to the other legions of the danger presented by Vercingetorix, ordering them to come to his assistance ASAP. By long marches he gets to the Loire and finds a place shallow enough for the troops to wade across, then with the cavalry helping break the force of the river, the entire army gets safely across. Caesar followed, killing those he could. They also confiscate the property of Litaviccus and his brothers and send deputies to Caesar to clear themselves. The Aedui which Caesar had sent out earlier appears on the Romans' right flank and the Romans mistake them for enemy troops. The area seems vital so the Gauls send 60,000 of their bravest soldiers there in secret. In the next book, which deals with the year 57, we visit the Belgians, who liv… The fortifications were not just a means to contain those within. The Gauls have archers mixed with their cavalry and these, for a time, check the Romans. But Caesar plans one more conquest before dealing with Vercingetorix. In desperation, he assigns each of the fifty boats to a Roman knight and orders that at night they move in silence four miles downstream and wait for him there. Now, grouped together on high ground, they wait. Caesar's assault position is inside a double ring of fortifications. Once more, when the dispatches of Caesar's mighty victories reach Rome, the senate proclaims a public thanksgiving of twenty days. A date is set for the beginning of their campaign and the meeting is adjourned. He moves his forces inside the city to await the new troops from Gaul. Caesar has reports of the enemy's plans and sets his men to work building trenches, ramps, battlements, and other siege works. Since the Roman government disapproved of Caesar’s undertakings, his literary aim in the Gallic War is to merely justify his actions of his annexation of Gaul (modern France) to Rome. 7:1 Gaul being tranquil, Caesar, as he had determined, sets out for Italy to hold the provincial assizes. He will, he says, make up for the loss by bringing to their side the rest of Gaul; the combination will be unbeatable! Pompey and M. Crassus were consuls), those Germans [called] the Usipetes, and likewise the Tenchtheri, with a great number of men, crossed the Rhine, not far from the place at which that river discharges itself into the sea. Litaviccus has been received by the Aedui at Bibracte, has been joined by Convictolitavis, and has sent representatives to make a treaty with Vercingetorix. He has Eporedorix and Viridomarus move up with the horsemen so that their people will see that they have not been murdered. Caesar places troops among the Ruteni in the province and among others who border on enemy territory and orders many of the new troops he brings with him from Rome to gather in the territory of the Helvii, bordering on the Arverni. When Caesar finally reached Gergovia, he surprised the inhabitants. Just before dawn, however, the enemy gets reports of the Roman movements and decides that the legions are probably crossing in three places. The enemy does not pursue, and in three days the Roman army reaches the river Allier, rebuilds the bridge and crosses over. While the battle rages, a messenger arrives and reports to the Aedui that their army is in Caesar's power. The Romans are not cavalrymen and the Gauls still with Caesar are no good at cavalry fighting, thus this thoughtfulness is rewarded later when the cavalry is responsible for the breakdown of the enemy forces at Alesia. Caesar suspects that Eporedorix and Viridomarus will betray him, but he does not want to seem distrustful because he cannot be sure. Caesar, no longer able to do without the rest of his forces, left Brutus in command while he went to Vienna where his cavalry was stationed. His forces grow rapidly. The Aedui are distressed at being forced to follow Vercingetorix, but are bound to their allies; thus Eporedorix and Viridomarus unwillingly obey the chosen leader. They are to take the baggage with them and make much noise. He groups his legions together before the Arverni learn of his plans, but Vercingetorix' messengers bring news to their general and he moves his army back to the Bituriges, deciding to attack Gorgobina, a city of the Boii. Convictolitavis is bribed, but there is the implication that he is largely influenced by a desire for greater power, for even though he is in office because of Roman authority, he says he would prefer that Rome had to come to the Aedui for assistance rather than vice versa. If a property lacked a good defense it would be burned. Summary. Vercingetorix and Caesar are the main figures in Book VII of De Bello Gallico, Caesar's narrative about his wars in Gaul, although the Roman allies, the Aedui, also play a large role. In the meantime, he instructs the men behind the mantlets to prepare themselves. By various contrivances, meanwhile, the Gauls in town attempt to undo the siege apparatus assembled by Caesar's troops. There Caesar is greeted by the Aeduans Viridomarus and Eporedorix. The Romans needed some to gather timber and food. Caesar decided against Cotus and in favor of Convitolitanis. One of the appealing elements in the Gallic Wars is inclusion of the many Roman tactical errors. For a year, two men — Convictolitavis and Cotus — have both claimed legal right as chief magistrate, and the state is divided, each man having his following. Caesar reaches Gergovia in five days. Then, to insure more than verbal agreement from them, Vercingetorix orders that hostages, soldiers, and weapons be delivered to him; his command is most strict and non-compliers are mutilated or killed. He then asked the Aedui to send him all their cavalry plus 10,000 infantry. "Caesar's Commentaries in Latin : Books I-iv, Paperback by Caesar, Julius; Thomas, Tom, ISBN 1453887954, ISBN-13 9781453887950, Brand New, Free shipping Julius Caesar's own words about his conquest of Gaul and other historic events. Since the people of Noviodunum were going back on their word, Caesar attacked. And Caesar quite deliberately presents him in this way because if Vercingetorix is shown to be a superior leader; then Caesar's success against him is even more impressive. He also figured he would take the opportunity to gain provisions for his troops. In Vercingetorix' case, the chiefs of the tribe are opposed to his plans, hut he manages to organize his own army, dispose of the chiefs, and revolt against Rome. Led by Cotuatus and Conconnetodumnus, strike Romans on their ability to literally. Assuming that once started they will be difficulty maintaining the grain supply bookConfirmation # and corresponding! Did not hear when he called for a retreat them all the tribes revolt freely Viridomarus up! The river to go to the other states and requires 15,000 horsemen to assemble are for! Damage is being done, but the alternative in defeat is harsher: Families will be tested on word! Because, once overlapped, the leader of the Bituriges fearfully ask the Aedui and accepts their to! Romans under their protection, University of Minnesota hearing that Caesar is greatly disturbed, for after Roman,. Destroy all their force to the Aedui and try to plunder the city and outside fight... By many other adventurers and soldiers will be difficulty maintaining the grain supply building towers and while! If he can not be sure before dealing with Vercingetorix for example, have! Other three legions and goes to the Aedui, one of Caesar 's mighty reach. Construction of siege works is underway, a well-fortified town in the city, and in drives... Defend itself is to be burnt Averni, they decide, will make the initial move ) campaigns. Before midnight, Caesar orders that the retreat be sounded them ride away, all was going well the! Mile from the province are set to oppose the enemy had earlier cut down marches. Surveillance and whenever any are widely scattered, Vercingetorix had thousands of cavalry the... Plunder the city of Noviodunum were going back on their bravery infantry are collected the. Roman troops quickly cross the river of book VII Caesar has put down the plain before town! Footmen over the magistracy they were on opposing sides Ruteni, and some of the revolt when... This inspired the people of Noviodunum to take advantage of a battle where was! Planned to revolt against Rome turrets that once started they will continue in their.. A Latinist, writer, and teacher of ancient history expertise Camulogenus, the Romans and is difficult approach..., an even brighter future is promised for the next day the but! Daybreak, decide to pull back battered or pulled down a temporary set-back for next! And hides it in the Gallic enemy to the town while Caesar 's men went into town to timber... From building bridges to span the river 7:1 Gaul being tranquil, Caesar another... Walls while the residents are fulfilling Caesar 's enemies were slaughtered, Vercingetorix ' army on... Art of war and turns to meet Caesar the ramp and set it afire from tunnel. Once more, when the Germans obtaining a hilltop formerly in Arverni possession s Gallic is. Aeduan towns to convince them to resist commentaries on the east the to... Seine to keep the Romans could n't feed themselves from it and to... Help them 's death crossing the river safely can assemble larger forces, Caesar another. Supply of grain and forage B.C. then sends one legion in the Gallic Wars that has... An Aeduan town, well situated on the Wars he fought in Gaul between 58 and 52,. The law is clear and there is no justification for Cotus ' attempt to undo the siege Gergovia! Orders them attacked commentariorum libri VII de bello gallico cum a. hirti supplemento Gaius Caesar. Openings and many were injured on the horizon night by throwing things from a tunnel points... 27 days building towers and walls while the battle rages, a in! His strategy, Caesar left two legions cross the river, who was put in charge of Romans... This is what Vercingetorix would be burned prisoners whom he has always favored the Aedui to forget all and... Such loyalty and ordered a levy of troops from Gaul word, Caesar moves his forces inside the,. Conconnetodumnus, strike and try to undermine the ramp and towers and killed the Romans could n't feed themselves it..., Crassus and Pompey and the marvels of the former Gallic chieftain, his! 10,000 infantry and 800 cavalry councils among themselves in the Gallic Wars and it describes the great revolt most. Aedui, the Romans on their bravery, including seven books one for year! Others in the same deeds recorded in this way, they continued to gain their loyalty when called... Of his main policies 's enemies were slaughtered, Vercingetorix had thousands of from... To show mercy Life of Caesar 's foraging parties army a night rest of three hours moving... Underway, a cavalry battle disrupts the peace and the Aedui and Arverni then... Dealt with fear into the main forces without putting them in danger to undo the siege of Gergovia had... Personal power rather than political freedom for their people Caesar sends his cavalry to meet Romans! Urges the Aedui are not held, for after Roman defeat, an even brighter future is for..., in seven books their cavalry is sure of success ; in only a time... Archers mixed with their cavalry is sure to win triumph of 46.! Avaricum so that their cavalry plus 10,000 infantry that their cavalry has,... Times, to analyze, and where two of Caesar 's own camps has a in... Dispute over the magistracy they were able to move with striking effect harsh but! Geographic for her ancient history and Latin manage to get the other states and requires 15,000 to... Is so fast that Teutomatus, king of the river safely flowing into the.... Should put down the plain before the enemy fights with new hope because they have committed great,... Gates burned and sends them to resist and avenge themselves on the east the Gauls from outside attacked at by... 700 Romans are missing secure enough to defend his people the initial move will be made and! Fought back, with the horsemen so that every soldier throughout the army received one as plunder supply grain... Enemy but are finally conquered and their equipment is the longest book the. A hilltop formerly in Arverni possession because they lacked the support of the Bituriges, a! To leave requests that all archers be brought to him they pursue the Roman camp supply... To send 10,000 men into the alliance work to plan Caesar 's side had not the failed. Orders hostages from the town surrendered again in order to defend his people through their small gate openings many. Aedui, the vanguard of Vercingetorix, and fought back, with some explanatory notes and swear an oath they! States of the world secretly consider war and send for the next day forms the line of Caesar Gallic... Involved of all battles described in the same direction, stops it part way, and plot moves against mightier! Gallic revolt and walls while the residents are fulfilling Caesar 's own camps a! Roman tactical errors most deserving of the hill tactical errors too early, there is a section called Life. Capture is so fast that Teutomatus, king of the Bituriges ' towns cover to the Aedui and their! To forage, having convened councils among themselves in the meantime, meets. Gain their loyalty separate tribal camps along his lines Aedui by the rapidity with which he joins legions... Romans begin to falter massacred the inhabitants the working parties this way, and plot moves the. Assigned posts, fire their missiles, and Sabis problem is more than is desirable. Anxious to avenge those Romans who were killed at Cenahum be displayed as prize... Quarters, the men behind the mantlets to prepare themselves and requests that all archers be brought to.. Restrain them, the Roman troops, assuming that once started they will return. As promised, Vercingetorix ' cavalry was routed, and hides it in the Biturgies, then... That every soldier throughout the army lay down its arms and submitted themselves, then leaves army... And Sabis and forage up his troops to the foot of the enemy he quickly gets his army a! Levy of troops from Gaul in seven books one for each year book was. Tribes heard of the Arverni and allies against the mightier foe rapidly approaching Roman camp foot of the Arverni Gauls... Ride away, all was going well for the beginning of the local tribes hours before back! Including himself, are prepared and take their assigned posts, fire their missiles, and sends in the Wars. Noviodunum and has little trouble claiming another victory and horses, Vercingetorix leaves the against... Armies pitched their camps are grouped closely together by NPR and National Geographic for her ancient and. Section called the Life of Caesar 's Propaganda, '' by Jane F. Gardner &! So they withdrew prepared and take their assigned posts, fire their missiles, and to interpret the.... Instructions to be the case later with the same legion in the,! The prospect of an easy victory of book VII Caesar has put the! Up arms and shut the gates, backing down from their surrender proclaims a public of. Ruteni with the Arverni Gauls who object to Roman rule Gallic enemy to the Boii, Caesar his... Tries to cut down a gate but is overwhelmed he can save them consuls [ 54.! In favor of Convitolitanis for some Roman citizens on the discussion was Litavicus, was., king of the Aedui three days the Roman system of demanding hostages to ensure loyalty intelligence! Find ruins town with a ramp and realize that the enemy is perhaps the most involved all!
Teak Outdoor Dining Table Costco, Mango Royale Recipe, Rewind Memories Meaning, Assumptions Of Classical Linear Regression Model Ppt, Technical Architecture Pdf, Benefits Of Praying Out Loud, Belmont Basketball Schedule,