Project vs Program Management Planning. An Introduction to Project, Program, and Portfolio Management LEARNING OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you will be able to: Understand the growing need for better project, program, and portfolio management Explain what a project is, provide examples of projects, list various attributes of projects, and describe project constraints Here, the distinction is made between product manager vs. program manager, rather than project manager vs. program manager. Program vs. The portfolio manager is responsible to the executive board for delivery. How projects and programs differ. But there are stark differences that separate the three. Examples of a program outcome include a cultural or political change within an organization â or a change in the way in which an organization operates. The programme is likely to have sub-projects managed as a project portfolio, for example, design and build the product, recruit staff, train staff, market new product, extend related products, etc. This blog post is accompanied by a simple diagram and a customer example to illustrate how the 3 P’s look within an organization. To understand project portfolio management, we’ll break the term down into its parts. They have led to the myth that Program … For example, you’d want to plan a project or a program with a Gantt chart. This certainly does not help to clear up the confusion. Of course, the interpretation of these titles depends on the organization. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Â© 2020 SelectHub. These constraints include, but are not limited to, Scope, Time, Cost, Quality, Risk, and Resources.You can also refer to Max Wideman Glossary to read some other standard definitions of Project. This paper explains the PMI concepts and expands on them to show how they can be combined in order to provide a further level of effectiveness and control. Program Management vs Project Management: 5 Critical Differences posted by John Spacey, February 24, 2013. A program is a group of related projects, often with a common goal. In light of this, we wanted to help clear things up and highlight the differences between project vs program vs portfolio management. Although project management, program management and portfolio management are all distinct methods of managing project-oriented work, they can all be performed through one tool. October 4, 2019. Overseen by a program manager as opposed to a project manager, program management focuses on how a group of projects affects the organizationâs strategic goals and objectives. A program can be described as a cluster of related program activities, projects, and subprograms. Portfolio, Program and Project Management, what are the differences? At the European Congress in Madrid in April 2006, PMI launched two new standards: Project Portfolio Management and Program Management. In the diagram below (Diagram 1.0), the organization groups its initiatives, investments, projects, and programs through portfolios or lines of business aligning to the organization's benefits. And nothing does this better than a well-crafted company portfolio. A program will rely more on a rolling plan, as multi-year programs will need to adjust their plans as the business changes. Anyway, here's how a project and a program are similar: - Both have a start date: In fact, the start date of a program is the same as the start of the first project falling under the program. PMBOK 2013 pg. Your email address will not be published. The standard way to explain the difference between program and project management goes something like this: Project Managers manage projects and Program Managers manage a portfolio of projects. Program management involves multiple projects, as mentioned earlier. According to the PMBOK Guide, âA project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result.âSo, we can say that the nature of a project is temporary, i.e., once the project achieves its objective it exists no more, and the objective of a project is to create a unique product, or develop a system to provide you any service or is the result of any task.For instance, assuming, you have been given a project to seâ¦ | Governance.Business Program managers also do not directly manage the staff working to complete a project as a project manager would. Project portfolio managers need to worry about the budget and risk of multiple programs, along with future projects and overall business goals. Of course, you can assign tasks to team members too, and watch the progress bars update as your team members complete their tasks. What exactly are the differences when it comes to program management vs project management vs portfolio management? While theyâre different projects, they may use similar resources and can benefit from being managed by the same person. Goals set at the portfolio level will give shape to different projects, programs, and operational activities. A project can be described as one-off operation, that has certain objectives and required to be met within stipulated time. A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result. Project vs programme example. Let us know with a comment below! Whatever your needs are when it comes to managing your companyâs projects, thereâs a software solution available. However, there are differences when you directly compare portfolio vs program … +See our Professional Portfolio Tips guide for more detailed advice on crafting your best portfolio! What is a program? Portfolio Level A portfolio is all the projects for an organization created to meet their strategic business goals. 3 Key Differences Between Project Program & Portfolio Management | PM-by-PM. In the past, a program manager has likely already managed several very large, complex or risky projects. This extension is natural because: a program … Itâs also important to note that a portfolio manager could manage a program in addition to a project or perhaps even multiple portfolios. It also provides an understanding of the professional development and organizational challenges that may affect the ability of a practitioner to move between roles. Finally, it will show how the existing foundational standards of the Project Management Institute (PMI) can be uâ¦ Do you use project management, program management, portfolio management or possibly all three? File Format. Program Management vs Project Management: 5 Critical Differences posted by John Spacey, February 24, 2013. It’s simple, really. This paper analyzes the main differences between the knowledge, skills, and abilities required to succeed in the project, program, and portfolio management roles. Details. Agile Business Consortium Scrum Master. Organizations have long misunderstood the difference between projects and programs--particularly in relation to the strategic significance each plays to the enterprise. Learn how these customers – across many industries – use Projectric to manage their project portfolios: Projectric is a leading Project Portfolio Management solution that organizes project and program data into relevant, actionable information for making business decisions. This programme would be a collection of different projects, like one for updating the operating system and another for sourcing the resources and raw materials, along with the legal, business and support elements. Whereas a program is a collection of related projects, a project can exist without any program. s3.amazonaws.com. A project is a temporary endeavor done to create a unique service, result or product. Here’s another useful way to understand the product management vs. program management distinction. softwaresuggest. Looking at this scenario from strictly a project management lens wouldnât have uncovered this. Project Portfolio Management vs. Project Management vs. A portfolio manager might manage a software implementation program in addition to their content marketing program. Program managers are strategic, looking at the larger picture and implementing a strategy to achieve objectives with clear advantages for the company, like growth and results. management as the âmanagement of multiple projectsâo (r worse yet, writings that confuse program management with portfolio management). Therefore, the program manager is responsible for sorting out when each project can use a resource and when each employee should be working on which project, based on each projectâs plan. WORK SAMPLES VS. Program and portfolio management are carried out by more senior roles as previously discussed, and may even be assigned to a project management office (PMO). Such definitions leave much to be desired. Project management, strictly speaking, refers to one project. In order to make sure that the project is on schedule, project managers need to check in on the progress of each task as the project team works on them. Project vs Program vs Portfolio. Portfolio Management - Software Development Management. 454 x 358 png 29kB. Perhaps someone is underperforming when it comes to project A, but itâs only because theyâre completely tied up in project B. Or put another way you can fix two of the three but one of them must flex. Get our Requirements Template for PPM Software. Additionally, PPM processes help you find gaps in the current project portfolio or identify the current projects that may become a barrier to completing a future one. Definition: What is a project? 351 x 180 png 14kB. A portfolio consists of projects created to meet an organization’s strategic goals. The 7 key differences between a project and a program. At the bottom of the triangle we have the individual specialists who are working as part of a project. Programme Scope – Wider scope compared to projects and more focused on the benefits; Portfolio Scope – The scope is driven by the strategic business objective that … When you see something that needs doing, such as a software bug fix or creating a piece of content, the task is completed, and then itâs over. A program is a group of related or similar projects managed in a coordinated fashion to achieve a strategic objective. What is a project portfolio? This paper examines the critical differences in--and advantages of--implementing and managing projects and programs. Program Management: One Final Distinction. Program management exists because of the need to develop and control several projects in a program. A majority of projects are managed not in isolation but as part of a project portfolio or program. Scope. Many project management software vendors offer all-in-one solutions that allow businesses to manage everything from the most trivial task to company budgets and reports. There are certain aspects of running an organization that are controlled and managed at a level above these 3Ps, such as cultural influences, human resource practices and so on. Project Scope – Have defined objectives and scope is progressively elaborated upon during the project life cycle. PMI defines it as “A group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually. Project, program, and portfolio managers play a crucial part in aligning complex cross-functional projects with broader company goals. While the project manager is managing multiple tasks within a project, the program manager is coordinating between related projects within a program, in order to determine which projects are working towards the same or similar goals, and which may be dependent upon others. Project management software should allow users to document the tasks they complete. Projects can be completed by teams dispersed around the world- this is where. In simple words, project is the process of making an effort to create unique product, service or result. Many authors still describe a programme as a portfolio of projects. Portfolio management concentrates on choosing the right projects. Projectric provides a portfolio level solution that supports strategic alignment, transparency and governance. But because program managers look at the entire collection of projects (known as the program), they typically need more experience than a project manager. Project management involves the planning, coordination and oversight of a specific project from beginning to end. + Full portfolios should demonstrate your depth of design training with varied project types and scales, software skills, and conceptual approaches. The Agile community argues, rightly, that you normally canât get all of these at the same time. A program is a group of related or similar projects managed in a coordinated fashion to achieve a strategic objective. Goals or go-ahead for a new project comes from portfolio decision. So what exactly is the difference between project, program and portfolio management? 553: Program - A group of related projects, subprograms and program activities managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits not available from managing them individually. At the end of the programme the new product would be managed in the product portfolio. Both program and portfolio management are closely related to project management, which often leads to confusion. Rules to recognise Project, Programme and portfolio There are a couple of rules of thumb that you can use based on the standards. Project vs. For example, there’s program portfolio management, which assesses programs from a portfolio level. ProjectManager.com has an award-winning Gantt chart that lets you establish phases, milestones and dependencies. Pricing, Ratings, and Reviews for each Vendor. One question that troubles many is the difference between a program and project. Now youâre probably wondering what the difference is between a program manager and a project manager. For instance, an IT program manager might manage an ERP implementation and a BI implementation. Recently I shared my perspective on the relationship between product, project, and program managers. A program can span years. PMBOK 2013 pg. PLUSâ¦ Access to our online selection platform for free. Also like program management, project portfolio management provides insights into big picture budget and resource allocation. (Project Manager vs. scope and including associated qualityimplications). This is Project Management. However, there are differences when you directly compare portfolio vs program management. But letâs get down into some specifics: Project management is the more tactical of the three. Every business, from startups to fortune 500 corporations, needs to implement some form of project management. Rajiv Khanna assesses the differences and how the Managing Successful Programmes … A program is a group of related projects, often with a common goal. While they sound similar, the difference between project, program, and portfolio management is significant in purpose, scope, and benefit. An example of portfolio would be – a clothing firm has a portfolio that serves strategic goals of improving the ... ties these 3Ps – Project, Program, Portfolio – together at the organizational level and helps it move towards its vision. Organizational Project Management, or OPM, ties these 3Ps â Project, Program, Portfolio â together at the organizational level and helps it move towards its vision. As a general rule, programs accomplish far greater complexity than a single project. In addition, identifying resources ensures that the team always has what they need, when they need it. Learn the characteristics and distinctions of program management vs project management vs portfolio management and their contributions to the enterprise. Build a “green wall” in the sciences library, Install new efficient air conditioning units, https://projectric.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Portfolios-vs.-Programs-vs.-Projects.png, https://projectric.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/projectric_Mobile-logo-SMALL-01.png, Death by Spreadsheet – Project Management In Excel. PMBOK GuideProject Management includes, among many other things, balancing the project constraints. Each sits on a different tier of a hierarchy. We are a trusted partner for organizations that need to perform meaningful analysis, forecast outcomes, collaborate in a centralized resource and adapt quickly to changing business needs. Weâve discussed this a little already, mentioning that program management provides a higher overview than project management and the same for portfolio management over program management. The managers prepare such a report and details by reading every tiny aspect of the business project and pass the analysis report to the interested and potential investors. These are managed in a coordinated manner so that benefits can be obtained. Agile Digital Services (AgileDS Diploma in business analysis iiba, program management vs project management. In light of this, we wanted to help clear things up and highlight the differences between project vs program vs portfolio management. Below is a simple diagram showing the relationships between each word. Below is a simple diagram showing the relationships between each word. The biggest difference when it comes to program management vs project management is the number of projects. A project is a managed initiative of fixed duration, budget and scope. Itâs only when you consider multiple projects in relation to each other that youâre able to uncover these types of insight. Additionally, program managers tend to direct similar projects, whereas portfolio managers may be managing entirely unrelated projects. Specific purpose of each project within a program should be defined and aligned with the goals of the program. But it can be hard to find the best project management software if you arenât equipped with the right vocabulary. To understand project portfolio management, weâll break the term down into its parts. For example, a program may involve multiple concurrent projects that have interdependencies. A portfolio organizes programs, projects, sub-portfolios, sub-programs, and operations to facilitate business benefits (i.e., maximize profitability). Mainly, program managers are responsible for maintaining budget and monitoring risk but only at the program level. Budgets, schedules, projects and programs are some of the examples of single-use plans. Definition of Program vs Project. So here is the short answer. This is a key difference between project, program, and portfolio management: scope — and it’s often where the realm of project management ends, and program management begins. Difference between Project, Program & Portfolio. The solution is project management office software, also known as PMO software. Required fields are marked *. Project portfolio management (PPM), also known simply as portfolio management, involves managing a companyâs proposals, projects and programs to accomplish broader business initiatives. Project portfolio management includes a lot of activities, including the balance of project constraints. Definition: What is a project portfolio? If you need help determining which features you need from PMO software, make sure to check out our project management software requirements template. While this is a specific example of a project, launching a CRM would likely be part of a greater initiative to achieve business benefit such as cost reduction or increased operational efficiency. Accompanied by a simple diagram and a customer example to illustrate Portfolios, Programs and Projects within an organization. Project: Project is a unique process consisting of a definite start date and end date well defined objectives, when achieved, indicate its completion. A program is a long running initiative with broad strategic goals. This means that project management has a defined end, making it very focused on deliverables and less so on business tactics. Product Management vs. ... Project, Programme & Portfolio. Additionally, program and portfolio management are more strategic processes. Download . Program Manager) Project managers are more tactical, seeking to complete tasks and deliverables on time and within budget. Viewing program management from a project management mindset in order to make it fit the project paradigm is a fundamental flaw in thinking, but one that is pervasive across many industries. iipmchennai.com. But there are stark differences that separate the three. If you’d like a brief walkthrough of the differences between project management and product management, visit our Product Management vs. Project Management page. The portfolio manager decides which projects/programmes to undertake, provides the required resources, makes sure they are being used efficiently, and chases benefits. … The diagram below shows a simplified view of how projects and programs fit within the hierarchy of a business. Companies with this approach tend to view a program manager as a more technically-focused counterpart of the product manager, who is responsible for guiding the creation of the actual code that will form the solution. When it comes to the value or benefit derived from a given initiative, if the organisation can benefit from the components, even if the entire effort is not 100% successful, then we are dealing with a program. Portfolio Level A portfolio is all the projects for an organization created to â¦ Definition: What is a program? Every effort has a planning phase. www.pmbypm.com. Program Management occurs at the program level – Project Managers guide interrelated or interdependent projects as a group. First up, letâs define the concept that youâre probably the most familiar with. Program Management vs Project Management vs Portfolio Management. Distinguishing between a project portfolio, a programme and a project presents a dilemma, because the terms are often confused with one another. Project Portfolio Management 101: Processes, Tools, and Examples on Smartsheet, August 11, 2017. Doc; Docx; Size: 6 KB. A portfolio of projects will often contain numerous projects that have no relation whatsoever, besides the purpose of serving the â¦ For example, if someone needs to use a piece of equipment, they should schedule a time to use it and then document it under project management principles. Projects are, essentially, just basic solutions to basic issues; they fill in the gaps that need to be filled. Program managers look at cross-project dependencies, risks, issues, requirements, and solutions, and may coordinate with individual project managers to achieve these insights and keep the overall program healthy. In other words portfolios include many related projects. This post caused a flurry of interest and questions — specifically around the project-specific roles. A program for a retail franchise for example, could be to reduce waste by a certain percentage in a given time frame. Both program and portfolio management are closely related to project management, which often leads to confusion. Importance of Program Management. Your email address will not be published. All original content is copyrighted by SelectHub and any copying or reproduction (without references to SelectHub) is strictly prohibited. Scope, schedule, and resources all apply to both programs and projects although the planning is conducted at different levels. The standard way to explain the difference between program and project management goes something like this: Project Managers manage projects and Program Managers manage a portfolio of projects. There are many students who misconstrue project for the program, so here, in this article, we will explain the difference between project and program. A program can span years. Program Manager) Project managers are more like engineers, who plan in detail and provide ways to enable the vision. Details: Program Management occurs at the program level – Project Managers guide interrelated or interdependent projects as a group. Each standard is self-contained and provides only limited details on the relationship between the two domains. Think about the fact that you probably already have a lot of employees spread across several different projects. Program vs. An overview of the relationship between Portfolios, Programs and Projects. Furthermore, project management is directed by project managers, but much of the tasks involved are carried about by your regular employees. Project vs Program, plus the difference between Project and Program Managers. Specific purpose of each project within a program should be defined and aligned with the goals of the program. Nice article you shared thanks for the information you convey through the article. A project is composed of tasks to achieve an end and is temporary – once a project’s objectives are realized, the project is delivered and closed. The portfolio makeup will also be subject to external influences such as customers and the market place. it defines the budget, timelines and objectives of the project, look at the entire collection of projects (known as the program), project management software requirements template. This is. Project Management. PORTFOLIOS Understanding the Differences, Uses, and Values of Both Portfolio is an organizational strategy/thinking to achieve strategic goals. As per PMBOK fifth edition project is a temporary endeavour with a start and end date, it provides a unique output. These collections of projects can be established for an entire company or for a division within a larger organization. Jump-start your selection project with a free, pre-built, customizable PPM Software requirements template. They think about the structure of the program, organizing the projects within the program, to achieve success. They share some of the same responsibilities, such as daily management of life cycles, risks and budget. I often get this question â whatâs the difference between project, program, and portfolio â the triple Pâs in PPP management. People often get confused with project vs. program vs. portfolio so I thought I would give a quick rundown of the differences. Most people have a common understanding of a project. The others are program management and portfolio management. Project vs. See the Price/User for the top PPM Software... plus the most important considerations and questions to ask. This is to promote good leadership management in building large-scale projects that are considered to be crucial for a business. Need for PPM: Projectric provides a portfolio level solution that supports strategic alignment, transparency and governance. While these two programs may not have much overlap in terms of resources, itâs still important to consider them together when planning for the future of the business. Programme Example – IT Transformation programme; Portfolio Example – NASA’s space programme . Program vs. Similar to how program management provides a higher level overview of project management, portfolio management offers an even higher level overview of both projects and programs. Project vs programme management: choosing best practice By Rajiv Khanna – Raj Khanna Associates Limited 06 March 2017 Best practice, Governance, MSP, PRINCE2, Programme management, Project management; What are the different approaches and benefits of programmes and projects in organizations? However, the Program Management standard does not explain how program management can take advantage of the capabilities of portfolio management. This category of software is one of the best tools for managing every level of project management. Portfolio Managers. Such constraints include, among other things, scope, resources, time, risk, cost, and quality. Objectives & Goals A program has broad strategic goals such as transforming an organization's business model, product offerings or cost structure. Program Management is a method to manage related groups of projects. Software development: The development of a software constitutes and individual project and its launching corresponds to another separate project. Let’s say a company wants to build and market a new mobile phone. (I find the PRINCE2 definition of a project a little vague hence less useful. Project management software allows companies to become competitive in their environments, optimizing time and effort and keeping the project on track by using its main features of planning, managing time, resources and people & controlling. Project vs. This approach takes projects out of their silos and avoids the pitfalls associated with them. Program Management found in: Program Management Framework Ppt PowerPoint Presentation Styles Layouts, Program Management Planning Steps With Icons Ppt PowerPoint Presentation Professional Display, Program Management Dashboard.. Because of this, theyâre both ongoing processes with no definitive end. They analyze, understand and report on the potential risks and returns of a new project. The Portfolio Management standard does (briefly) address Program Management since Programs can be components of portfolios. Program managers are more like architects, involving overall vision made up of function and form. Other aspects of project planning include defining the steps (commonly referred to as tasks) needed in order to finish the project, and identifying what resources will be required. Projects might not to exist outside a programme. Finally a question that is about the similarities, and not the differences between a project and a program. This keeps everyone on the same page, aware of their constraints and focused on their goals. Portfolio adjustments may need to made based on strategic changes, or feedback from program and project implementation. The following are key differences between the two: A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result. Here is an overview of the relationships between the 3 P’s: Portfolios, Programs and Projects. Similar to how program management provides a higher level overview of project management, portfolio management offers an even higher level overview of both projects and programs. Project vs Program . What is a project? The difference between program management and PPM is a little harder to discern, but there are distinct differences between these two practices as well. These aspects help create a plan that the project team members can easily follow, as they know exactly what they have to do to complete a task, as well as what theyâll work on afterward. Both involve the careful coordination of projects and programs that meet organizational strategies, rather than individual tactics. Any â¦ General Program Example. Project planning is quite possibly the most important step in the project management process, as it defines the budget, timelines and objectives of the project. Whether he is given a program or a project does not mean much to a layman, but to a manager, it means a lot as both entail different functions and responsibilities that will be clear only when the differences between project and program are elucidated. Agile teams normally flex scope. Details: These collections of projects can be established for an entire company or for a division within a larger organization. When you want to attract new clients, it’s imperative that you make a great first impression. Program management is very similar to project management, but instead of one project, this discipline involves managing several ongoing projects at once. In PRINâ¦ According to PMI, project management is âa temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result.â This fulfils a long-felt need by project professionals to expand their influence, vision and visibilitâ¦ Details: A project is composed of tasks to achieve an end and is temporary – once a project’s objectives are realized, the project is delivered and closed. April 9, 2008 May 5, 2008 savvypm Leave a comment. Illuminate your portfolio with Projectric - Project Portfolio Management (PPM ) simplified. Various trademarks held by their respective owners. Theyâre less concerned with the success of every single individual project, and more focused on the success of the overall initiative and achieving the larger benefit. Such benefits cannot be obtained at an individuaâ¦ The PMBOK definition nicely encapsulates this: Successful projects deliver on time, to budget and to specification (i.e. Integrated Project, Portfolio and Program Management Operational Integration . While the projects that make up the program are managed at a high-level, the successful implementation of the program will come down to the individual locations. All rights reserved. This document provides a detailed look into your company and past projects. Such definitions leave much to be desired. Some of the most useful features include real-time collaboration, document management, finance management and reporting/forecasting. People often get confused with project vs. program vs. portfolio so I thought I would give a quick rundown of the differences. Project: Program: Portfolio: Definitions: Project - A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. from Project Portfolio Management software (like Projectric) becomes helpful. Need for PPM: Because programs can span years, projects and people, optimizing resources among projects and reducing constraints across programs increases an organization’s performance. Itâs the discipline through which every project and task gets accomplished. As it relates to PPM, a project is an individual effort to create a discrete product or service in a bounded amount of time. Portfolio Management I mentioned in the last post the shift from project management to program management as one of the many important shifts in business-IT maturity that typically take place around the middle of Level 2 (in a simplified 3-level model). To understand further the difference between project management, program management, and project portfolio management, take note of the following examples: 1. A project differs from a program in the sense that the latter is a bundle of related projects, managed in a coordinated manner, to attain the benefits, which is available only when the projects are managed in groups. The portfolio can include projects managed by one organization, programs which may include multiple organizations or a group of projects which share resources or the same deliverables and stakeholders. Project portfolio management or PPM can be understood as the process that the project managers of a firm use. The scope and goals of a project are well-defined – while programs are typically less clear-cut. As it relates to PPM, a project is an individual effort to create a discrete product or service in a bounded amount of time. Programs and Projects and Portfolio. Think of diagram as showing the people running the business at the top of the triangle – the CEO and board. A portfolio consists of projects created to meet an organization’s strategic goals. Because programs can span years, projects and people, optimizing resources among projects and reducing constraints across programs increases an organization’s performance. PPM software lets portfolio managers determine projects by priority in addition to making notes on strategic progress. An Introduction to Project, Program, and Portfolio Management LEARNING OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you will be able to: Understand the growing need for better project, program, and portfolio management Explain what a project is, provide examples of projects, list various attributes of projects, and describe project constraints Also like program management, project portfolio management provides insights into big picture budget and resource allocation. The other major component of project management is monitoring the completion of individual tasks while the project is underway. Gantt charts are a necessity, as they allow program managers a clear view into resource usage. (Project Manager vs. Need for PPM: Projects can be completed by teams dispersed around the world- this is where resource management from Project Portfolio Management software (like Projectric) becomes helpful. What methods do you use to manage your companyâs projects? Project portfolio management helps plan for future projects by giving managers better insights into where the smartest investments can be made. For one, PPM involves more strategy and is more goal-driven than program management. There is an upper layer called portfolios. Structure: The components of a project are specific and exact.
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